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Chernozem in the history of the region

Voronezh Chernozem, as a standard of fertile soil, was stored in the French national agronomic Institute. The black earth region is not only the most fertile soil, it is also the most interesting and eventful history of the region.

Historians believe that in the Bronze age on the territory of the black earth lived arias of the Abashev culture. The name of the culture comes from the village of Abashevo in Chuvashia, where its mounds were first found in 1925.
The Sarmatians, whose descendants were the Alans, also visited dalee, and then the Khazars and Pechenegs settled on these lands.
As the Moscow state strengthens, border fortresses are being built here: Voronezh (1585), Belgorod (1596). During the Imperial period, Chernozem became a province, divided in 1708 between the Kiev and Azov provinces.
In 1928, the Central Chernozem region was formed with the center in Voronezh.
There are many factors that can distinguish Voronezh from other cities. This is a large number of residents, and the Central location among other regions of the region, a large number of offices, representative offices, banks, newspaper offices.
In 1928, the Central Chernozem region was formed by the decree of the Central Executive Committee, which included four provinces: Voronezh, Kursk, Oryol and Tambov, with the center in Voronezh.
Discussions about which regions should be classified as Central black earth provinces have been going on since the mid-20s of the last century. Gosplan of the RSFSR considered it possible to include not only Kursk, Voronezh, Oryol and Tambov provinces, but also Penza, Ryazan and Tula provinces as Central black earth provinces. The Chairman of the Voronezh provincial planning Commission Peters proposed to include in the Central black earth region in addition to Voronezh, Kursk, Orel and Tambov provinces, parts of hopersky district Tsaritsynsky province, County Chembar, Penza province and Balashov uyezd, Saratov province, and part of the Karachevsky and Sevsk districts of Bryansk province.
The southern border of the Central administrative district with Ukraine was drawn for political reasons, and in accordance with these considerations, in October 1925, Ukraine was transferred most of the territory of the Putivl district of Kursk and part of the Valuysky district of the Voronezh province.
However, disputes over the definition of the boundaries of the CSR within the RSFSR continued.
In March 1928, the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) decided to complete the process of creating the Central Committee. The resumption of the process of registration of the CSR was caused by the completion of the process of restoring the economy, the need to develop tasks for the 1st five-year plan.
By October 1, 1931, there were 155 districts in the region, which included 4,282 village councils and 40 cities.
Among them are six separate administrative divisions: Voronezh — 161,570 inhabitants, Kursk-92,280, Tambov-83,857, Orel — 78,106, Kozlov (now Michurinsk) — 62,666, Yelets — 42,553 inhabitants.
On June 13, 1934, the region was divided into Kursk (60 districts) and Voronezh (84 districts) by the Decree of the Central Executive Committee and the SNK of the RSFSR.
Currently, the name Central Chernozem region, or Central Chernozem district, or Central Chernozem strip refers to the Central Chernozem economic region. It is named after the prevailing type of soil-Chernozem. There are facts that the Germans exported our black soil in trains to Germany.
Even at the end of the XIX century, Russian chernozems were the standard for foreign geologists and soil scientists. Brought to the world exhibition in Paris, the monolith of Chernozem taken from the Paninsky district of the Voronezh region was a huge cube, each face of which was a little more than 2 meters long. According to the results of the vote, the "black diamond", as Western experts dubbed the monolith of Russian Chernozem, won the Gold medal at the world exhibition. Eight-plus cubic meters of Russian land were initially going to be divided among various participants in the exhibition, but in the end, it was given to the Sorbonne by lot.
In 1968, a cube of Voronezh Chernozem was destroyed by students during clashes with the police. However, caring French scientists still collected and preserved small fragments of the "black diamond", which are still stored in the National agronomic Institute of France.
At the beginning of the new Millennium, Voronezh Chernozem, which had held the title of standard for more than a century, was forced to cede the palm to Chernozem from Tambov region.
This event was influenced by the presentation of a meter-long vertical earth sample from the Rzhaksinsky district of the Tambov region, held at the Moscow Polytechnic Institute in 2003. Present at the exhibition, agronomists and Museum staff unanimously recognized the exhibited sample as a new "standard of fertile soil in Russia".
But the legendary Voronezh monolith is still not forgotten — a sculptural composition in the form of a globe with ears of wheat, resting on a granite cube, was erected in 2013 in the village of Panino…

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